Scientific writing has two goals: to share with the reader of brand new developments in a field that is specific and also to address existing questions with new evidence.

Scientific writing has two goals: to share with the reader of brand new developments in a field that is specific and also to address existing questions with new evidence.

Academic research paper sample that is writing

  • Academic writing into the sciences addresses new scientific developments and clarifications of scientific questions, most frequently in the form of a lab report, journal article, or literature review. The natural sciences include fields such as for example astronomy, biology, chemistry, and physics; the social sciences include anthropology, economics, linguistics, political science, sociology, and psychology.
  • Scientific papers commonly proceed with the IMRAD model, which is short for introduction, method, results, and discussion.
  • The introduction should describe elements such since the paper’s motivation, aim, problem, tested hypothesis, novel contributions, background materials, and a synopsis of this material that is subsequent.
  • The methods section should cover the writer’s assumptions, system model, simulation model, and performance measures. For an study that is original when, where, and just how the analysis was conducted, what materials were used, and who was simply within the study groups should all be included.
  • The writer should include any empirical data, charts, and plots that convey the answer to the research question, and state whether the research hypothesis was proven or not proven in describing the results.
  • The discussion section should analyze the outcome, state why they matter, contextualize them with regards to research that is existing and suggest the implications for future research.
    • objectivity: the capacity to perceive an interest without being affected by personal biases or emotions.
    • bias: a opinion that is definite position on a subject.
    • lab report: A step-by-step explanation of this materials, methods, data, results, analysis,
      conclusions, and references of an experiment.

    Scientific research papers report new discoveries, applying evidence to resolve questions and identify patterns. Writing during these disciplines often takes the type of peer-reviewed journal articles, literature reviews, grant proposals, case studies, and lab reports.

    A student might analyze research results to address or clarify a particular scientific development or question for example, in an environmental-science lab report

    “This study is designed to identify levels of chlorine and phosphorus compounds in a three-mile stretch regarding the Columbia River, which will be a place notable for salmon runs. An analysis of samples taken over a two-year period from various locations within the three-mile stretch revealed the persistence of high levels of phosphorous and chlorine compounds. Within the study, we examine the partnership between salmon population as well as the persistence of these compounds.”

    Scientific papers require a great deal of preliminary work, including research, field work, and experimentation. Translating that work into writing may be difficult, but academic conventions provide a template that is common communicating findings clearly and effectively.

    Writing into the sciences seeks to explain complex phenomena in clear, straightforward prose that minimizes bias that is authorial. It also includes components of classical argument, since scientific papers are anticipated to contextualize, analyze, and interpret the given information at hand.

    Precision of Language

    Lab reports, case studies, as well as other kinds of scientific writing should be precise in order to provide results that can be tested and reproduced.

    Make an effort to use simple words and sentences. Some students make an effort to make their work sound more intellectual making use of obscure words and long, elaborate sentences. In reality, the academy values precise words and detailed descriptions that are still understandable to a audience that is lay. Don’t try to mimic the stereotype of dense, convoluted writing that is academic. Instead, write as simply and clearly as you possibly can. Precision is a key component of clarity.

    Within the sciences, precision has two main applications: using concrete examples, and using language that is clear describe them. Defining your parameters accurately is important. Don’t generalize—provide times that are exact measurements, quantities, along with other relevant data as much as possible. Using precise, straightforward language to explain your projects can also be vital. This is not the right time or place for flashy vocabulary words or rhetorical flourishes. Style, however, continues to be important: writing about the sciences does give you a n’t pass to publish sloppily.


    The sciences strive for objectivity at each stage, from the procedures that are experimental the language found in the write-up. Science writing must convince its audience that its offering an important, innovative contribution; because of this, this has an argumentative character. Combining objectivity and argumentative writing can be challenging. Scientific objectivity has two requirements: your hypothesis must be testable, and your results must be reproducible.

    The importance of objectivity when you look at the sciences limits writers’ ability to use persuasive rhetoric. However, it’s still necessary to make a case that is strong the value, relevance, and applicability of the research. Argumentative writing comes with a accepted place in scientific papers, but its role is restricted. You might use language that is persuasive the abstract, introduction, literature review, discussion of results, and conclusion, but stay away from it when you describe your methods and present your results.


    Many students struggle to transition from 1 topic to another. Transitions are well worth mastering—they would be the glue that holds your opinions together. Never assume that your reader will guess the relationships correctly between different subtopics; it really is your responsibility to explain these connections.

    Scientific Reasoning

    Maintaining your chosen model in your mind as you write will help ensure that your decisions and conclusions are logically consistent. Also, be cautious about logic traps such as for example bias and faulty causality. Researchers must take into account their own biases, or personal preferences, prejudices, and preconceived notions. These can sometimes include bias that is cognitive thinking), cultural bias (the imposition of one’s own cultural standards upon research subjects), and sampling bias (the tendency during sample collection to incorporate some members of the intended sample more readily than others).

    Your body of a scientific paper generally comprises of the following sections: introduction (which could include a literature review), methods, results, and discussion.

    Learning Objectives

    Define each element of the IMRAD structure

    Key Takeaways

    Key Points

    • The IMRAD model could be the conventional approach that is structural academic writing into the sciences. The IMRAD model has four parts: introduction, methods, results, and discussion.
    • An overview is provided by the literature review of relevant research in your discipline. This may be included as part of the introduction, or it may stand as the own section.
    • The strategy section should explain how you evaluated and collected your data.
    • In the event your project conducts an experiment or an data that is original, you really need to include a separate section that reports your outcomes.
    • The discussion section should analyze your outcomes without reporting any findings that are new.
    • IMRAD: An acronym for Introduction, Methods, Results, and Discussion—the conventional structure of a scientific paper.
    • literature review: A synthesis regarding the critical points of current knowledge in a given field, which includes significant findings along with theoretical and methodological contributions to a particular topic.
    • quantitative: Of research methods that depend on objective measurements and data analysis.
    • result: The discovery (or absence of discovery) that comes from the method that is scientific of.
    • qualitative: Of research methods that induce a more understanding that is subjective studying a subject’s defining qualities and character.

    In the natural and social sciences, the format when it comes to body for the paper varies depending on the discipline, audience, and research methods. Generally, the body for the paper contains an introduction, a methods section, results, and discussion. This method is named IMRAD for short.

    These sections usually are separate, although sometimes the total results are combined with the methods. However, many instructors prefer that students paper writing websites maintain these divisions, as they are still learning the conventions of writing in their discipline. Most scientific journals prefer the IMRAD format, or variations from it, and even recommend that writers designate the four elements with uniform title headings.

    Attempt to stay true to each section’s stated purpose. You are able to cite relevant sources within the methods, discussion, and conclusion sections, but again, save the discussion that is lengthy of sources for the introduction or literature review. The outcomes section should describe your results without discussing their significance, as the discussion section should analyze your outcomes without reporting any findings that are new. Think of each section as a training course served at a fancy dinner—don’t pour the soup to the salad or add leftover scraps through the entree to your dessert!

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